currently exist a limited number of manufacturers of this API. Therefore, API costs for naltrexone are greater than for the other constituents of our product. Demand for Contrave may require amounts of naltrexone greater than the currently available worldwide supply or our or our partners’ current forecasts for the supply to us of Contrave or its components. Any lack of sufficient quantities of naltrexone would limit our ability to continue to commercialize Contrave in the United States and complete any additional required clinical trials and would limit our ability to commercialize Contrave/Mysimba outside the United States and Europe. Although we are evaluating additional possible manufacturers to supplement our current naltrexone manufacturing capacity, including those in the United States and Europe, we may not be successful in accessing additional manufacturing supply of naltrexone API or other necessary components of our product at the appropriate quantities, quality or price.
We have no material, long-term commitments or supply agreements with any of our API suppliers. Although we may seek to establish additional long-term supply commitments in the future, we may be required to agree to minimum volume requirements, exclusivity arrangements or other restrictions. We may not be able to enter into long-term agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Consequently, we and our partners may not be able to successfully commercialize Contrave if we are unable to secure long-term supply commitments for its API components. Further, now that we have sole responsibility for the commercialization of Contrave in the United States, in the future we may not be able to negotiate terms that are consistent with, or as favorable as, terms that were negotiated when we had a large pharmaceutical company as our collaboration partner.
In addition, our API suppliers must comply with cGMP requirements enforced by the FDA through its facilities inspection program and must maintain and comply with their respective DMFs on file with the FDA or other similar regulatory bodies. These requirements include, among other things, quality control, quality assurance and the generation and maintenance of records and documentation. Suppliers of our API may be unable to comply with these cGMP requirements and with other FDA, state and foreign regulatory requirements. While we are ultimately responsible for ensuring that our contract manufacturers operate in accordance with cGMP requirements and have implemented a quality oversight program, we have little control over our manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards. A failure to comply with these requirements may result in fines and civil penalties, suspension of production, suspension or delay in product approval, product seizure or recall, or withdrawal of product approval. If the safety of any product supplied is compromised due to our suppliers’ failure to adhere to applicable laws or for other reasons, we may not be able to successfully commercialize Contrave, and we may be held liable for an injuries sustained as a result. Any of these factors could cause a delay of clinical trials or commercialization of Contrave, entail higher costs or result in our and our partners being unable to effectively commercialize our product. Furthermore, if our suppliers fail to deliver the required commercial quantities of API on a timely basis, pursuant to the required specifications set forth in their respective DMF and at commercially reasonable prices, and we are unable to timely secure and qualify additional suppliers with applicable regulatory authorities, we and our partners may not be able to successfully commercialize Contrave and/or we and our partners may be unable to meet demand for our product and would lose potential revenues. To the extent that Contrave is approved for sale in other countries in addition to the United States and Europe, we may be subject to similar restrictions and requirements imposed by laws and government regulators in those countries.
Contrave is a combination of generically-available pharmaceutical products, and our success is dependent on our ability and our partners’ ability to compete against off-label generic substitutes and demonstrate the advantages of our proprietary combination products.
Off-label use occurs when physicians prescribe a drug that is approved by the FDA for one indication for a different, unapproved indication. We believe that a practitioner seeking safe and effective therapy is not likely to prescribe such off-label generics in place of Contrave because the dosage strengths, pharmacokinetic profiles and titration regimens recommended for Contrave are not available using existing generic preparations of immediate release, or IR, naltrexone and bupropion ER, and there are no oral generic ER formulations of naltrexone. However, a physician could seek to prescribe off-label generics in place of Contrave. Such off-label prescriptions could significantly diminish the market potential of our product and significantly impact our ability to generate revenues.
With regard to off-label substitution at the pharmacy level, we expect to rely on the novel dose ratios and novel pharmacokinetic properties of our product, as well as the differences in its approved indications, to provide sufficient distinction such that generic preparations are not considered therapeutic equivalents by the FDA. State pharmacy laws in many instances only permit pharmacists to substitute generic products for branded products if the products are therapeutic equivalents. Therefore, the lack of therapeutic equivalency should limit generic substitution by pharmacies and/or pharmacy benefit managers. However, we cannot be certain that pharmacists and/or pharmacy benefit managers will not seek prescriber authorization to substitute generics in place of Contrave, which could significantly diminish their market potential and significantly impact our ability and our partners’ ability to successfully commercialize our product and generate revenues.