Print Page  Close Window


SEC Filings

S-1/A
OREXIGEN THERAPEUTICS, INC. filed this Form S-1/A on 04/09/2007
Entire Document
 
Table of Contents

results from our studies suggest that the incidence of nausea has generally been related to the dose of IR naltrexone, particularly at dosages of 48mg or higher. The pharmacology of naltrexone suggests that nausea is related to both gastrointestinal motility and a dose-related CNS effect. There are a number of ways in which we can attempt to address this issue, including lowering the dose, titrating the drug more slowly and adjusting the formulation to release the drug more gradually. Concerning the latter, we hypothesized that, if the drug could be released beyond the stomach, such as in the small bowel, and the maximum blood concentration, or Cmax, lowered, the incidence and/or intensity of nausea and other adverse events may be reduced.
 
Accordingly, we have successfully developed and tested a sustained release formulation of naltrexone which achieves similar exposure, or AUC, to that obtained with IR naltrexone but with a lowered Cmax. This SR preparation is primarily absorbed in the small bowel where the density of opioid receptors is lower, thus reducing the local effects of naltrexone in the gut. In a recent Phase I pharmacokinetic study that we conducted, this SR preparation demonstrated an improvement in tolerability across various measures. These included overall adverse events and gastrointestinal-related events. Not only were the rates of reported adverse events lower in the SR group, the severity of reported adverse events was also lower. We have incorporated this proprietary SR formulation into the Contrave tablet for our current Phase III trial and intend to utilize it in our additional planned Phase III trials.
 
As part of the exploration of the putative effect of Contrave on food craving, we plan to initiate a study utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, in self-identified obese food cravers. This technique is a brain imaging technology that permits the regional localization and quantification of changes in neuronal activation. Based on emerging literature demonstrating that the brain’s basic reward mechanisms are activated when exposed to individualized food cues (picture, image, smell, etc.), we believe the potential exists to demonstrate such a regional activation in select brain centers with select food cues, and in turn, the ability of Contrave to reduce this activation relative to placebo. The constituents of Contrave have been shown individually to be effective in attenuating craving-associated behaviors (bupropion in smoking under the brand name Zyban, and naltrexone in alcoholism and drug addiction under the brand names Vivitrol, Trexan and Revia). Our proposed study would be conducted in a randomized, double-blind fashion by one or two select academic centers. Under current plans, patients will receive an fMRI at baseline and at study termination at week eight. It is anticipated that this study, to the extent that it substantiates our hypothesis, may be useful in positioning Contrave as a treatment that reduces the craving-based consumption of select high calorie foods among obese individuals.
 
Empatic
 
Empatic is a fixed dose combination of zonisamide SR and bupropion SR. The combination of zonisamide and bupropion, in our screening model, produced a synergistic increase in POMC neuronal firing, suggesting that this drug combination would enhance satiety and energy expenditure. We have also validated this synergy in mice. Based on the strength of these results and Empatic’s unique mechanism of action, we selected this product combination to complement our Contrave clinical development program. We hold an exclusive license to an issued U.S. patent covering the Empatic composition, and we have filed additional patents covering various compositions, methods of use and formulations.
 
Zonisamide IR was approved in the United States in 2000 for the adjunctive treatment of partial seizures, a form of epilepsy. It is marketed under the brand name Zonegran by Eisai Inc., which acquired the rights to the product from Elan Pharmaceuticals in 2004. Zonegran became available in generic form in the United States in 2005, and at its peak produced approximately $177 million in annual sales, according to IMS Health. The precise mechanism of zonisamide is unknown; however, it is believed that zonisamide has a number of pharmacologic mechanisms including sodium-channel modulation and enhancement of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Zonisamide, given alone, has also shown weight loss in prior clinical trials conducted at Duke University.
 
We have developed a proprietary SR formulation of zonisamide in order to improve its tolerability. Controlling the release of zonisamide via our novel SR formulation reduces the Cmax while retaining a similar area under the curve to zonisamide IR. We have shown in a single-dose, double-blind, crossover Phase I


72